Flawed Beauty The Problem With Toughened Glass IELTS Reading Answers.
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Reading Passage 2, Questions 14-26 Answers
- NOT GIVEN
READING PASSAGE 2– Flawed Beauty The Problem With Toughened Glass IELTS Reading
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Flawed Beauty: the problem with toughened glass
On 2nd August 1999, a particularly hot day in the town of Cirencester in the UK, a large pane of toughened glass in the roof of a shopping center at Bishops Walk shattered without warning and fell from its frame. When fragments were analyzed by experts
at the giant glass manufacturer Pilkington, which had made the pane, they found that minute crystals of nickel sulphide trapped
inside the glass had almost certainly caused
“The glass industry is aware of the issue,’ says Brian Waldron, chairman of the standards committee at the Glass and
Glazing Federation, a British trade association, and standards development officer at Pilkington. But he insists that
cases are few and far between. ‘It’s a very rare phenomenon,’ he says.
Others disagree. ‘On average I see about one or two buildings a month suffering from nickel sulphide related failures,’ says Barrie
Josie, a consultant engineer involved in the Bishops Walk investigation. 0ther experts tell of similar experiences. Tony Wilmott of London-based consulting engineers Sandberg and Simon Armstrong at CladTech Associates in Hampshire both say they know
of hundreds of cases. “What you hear is only the tip of the iceberg,’ says Trevor Ford, a glass expert at Resolve Engineering in
Brisbane. Queensland. He believes the reason is simple: ‘No-one wants bad press.’
Toughened glass is found everywhere, from cars and bus shelters to the windows, walls, and roofs of thousands of buildings around
the world. It’s easy to see why. This glass has five times the strength of standard glass, and when it does break it shatters Into tiny cubes rather than large, razor-sharp shards. Architects love it because large
panels can be bolted together to make transparent walls, and turning it into ceilings and floors is almost as easy.
It is made by heating a sheet of ordinary glass to about 620°C to soften it slightly, allowing its structure to expand, and then
cooling it rapidly with jets of cold air. This causes the outer layer of the pane to contract and solidify before the interior. When the interior finally solidifies and shrinks, it exerts a pull on the outer layer
that leaves it in permanent compression and produces a tensile force inside the glass. As cracks propagate best in materials under tension, the compressive force on the surface must be overcome before the pane will break, making it more resistant to cracking.
The problem starts when glass contains nickel sulphide impurities. Trace amounts of nickel and sulphur are usually present in the
raw materials used to make glass, and nickel can also be introduced by fragments of nickel alloys falling into the molten glass.
As the glass is heated, these atoms react too.
Need Assistance With IELTS
Questions 14-17– Flawed Beauty The Problem With Toughened Glass IELTS Reading
Look ut the following people and the list of statements below.
Match euch person with the correct statement.
Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 14-17 on vour answver sheet.
- Brian Waldron
- Trevor Ford
- Graham Dodd
- John Barry
|List of Statements|
A suggests that publicity about nickel sulphide failure has been
B regularly sees cases of nickel sulphide failure
C closely examined all the glass in one building
D was involved with the construction of Bishops Walk
E recommended the rebuilding of Waterfront Place
F thinks the benefits of toughened glass are exaggerated
G claims that nickel sulphide failure is very unusual
H refers to the most extreme case of delayed failure
Complete the summary with the list of words A-P below.
Write vour answers in boxes 18-23 on your answer sheet.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2?
In boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
- Little doubt was expressed about the reason for the Bishops Walk accident.
- Toughened glass has the same appearance as ordinary glass.
- There is plenty of documented evidence available about the incidence of nickel sulphide failure.
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