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Questions 27-40
Section 3, Questions 27-40
27. C // The coal industry and the environment
28. v // Coal as an energy source
29. vi // Coal and the enhanced greenhouse effect
30. vii // Research and development
31. iv // Environment protection measures
32. D // trends in population and lifestyle
33. B//18 per cent/18%
34. B // developing new gasification techniques
35. A // more cleanly and more efficiently
36. D // runoff water containing sediments
37. NO // N
38. YES // Y
39. YES // Y

Study English in a national university with students from many
• 4-week blocks
• 5 hours’ tuition each day
• examination preparation
• university entry (with appropriate academic and English requirements)
Choice of accommodation for all students – homestays with local families or in Halls of Residence with New Zealand students.

The Totara Language Institute is part of the University of Waikato in the city of Hamilton, in New Zealand’s North Island. Intensive English classes are taught in four-week blocks throughout the year and students may enrol for as many blocks as they wish. Classes are for 5 hours each day, Monday to Friday, and include preparation for several international English language examinations. All the courses are taught by highly qualified teachers, many of
whom also teach on Language Institute graduate programmes in second language teaching and applied linguistics. Classes are small, usually from 10-12 students with a maximum number of 15, and normally contain a mix of students from a wide range of countries. Students who study English at the Language Institute become
international members of the Waikato Students’ Union. The option is available to move on to university study if students meet the English language and academic entry levels for their choice of programme. The Language Institute provides student support, welfare and activities services. Students are met at Auckland airport on arrival
and accommodation is provided with local families or in University Halls of Residence with New Zealand students.

Hamilton, one of New Zealand’s fastest growing cities, is ideally located for a wide range of leisure and cultural activities. The Waikato river, the longest river in New Zealand, flows through the centre of the city, providing a picturesque and park-like setting of riverside walks and gardens. The Waikato region is a diverse agricultural area, rich in historic sites, arts and crafts, hot springs, native forests, mountains and rivers. Within easy reach is an
unspoilt coastline; the wild and rugged west coast beaches famous for surfing, and the more peaceful east coast resorts are only a short drive from Hamilton. Further afield the mountains of the central North Island, 3 hours’ drive away, provide superb ski facilities in winter, and hiking country in summer.

The Language Institute activities co-ordinator can assist students to arrange any sport and leisure activities. Assistance is also available for ongoing travel arrangements for students. Students on a visitor visa or work permit may study for a maximum of 3 months. Courses of longer duration require a student permit which is issued for the
length of study only.


Read the passage on the following pages

Question 27
From the list below choose the most suitable title for the whole of the Reading Passage. Write the appropriate letter A-D in box 27 on your answer sheet.
A. Pollution control in coal mining
B The greenhouse effect
C The coal industry and the environment
D Sustainable population growth.

Questions 28-31 ,

The Reading Passage has four sections A-D.
Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list of headings below. Write the appropriate numbers i-viii in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings
i. Global warming
ii. The dangers of the coal industry
iii. Superclean coal
iv. Environment protection measures
v. Coal as an energy source
vi. Coal and the enhanced greenhouse effect
vii. Research and development
viii. Mining site drainage

28. Section A
29. Section B
30. Section C
31. Section D

passage 4

A.Coal is expected to continue to account for almost 27 percent of the world’s energy needs. However, with growing international awareness of pressures on the environment and the need to achieve
sustainable development of energy resources, the way in which the resource is extracted, transported, and used is critical.

B. The coal industry has been targeted by its critics as a significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. However, the greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon involving the increase in global surface temperature due to the presence of greenhouse gases – water vapor, carbon dioxide, tropospheric ozone, methane, and nitrous oxide – in the atmosphere. Without the greenhouse effect, the earth’s average surface temperature would be 33-35 degrees C lower, or -15 degrees C. Life on earth, as we know it today, would not be possible.

There is concern that this natural phenomenon is being altered by a greater build-up of gases from
human activity, perhaps giving rise to additional warming and changes in the earth’s climate. This
additional build-up and its forecast outcome have been called the enhanced greenhouse effect. Considerable uncertainty exists, however, about the enhanced greenhouse effect, particularly in
relation to the extent and timing of any future increases in global temperature.

Greenhouse gases arise from a wide range of sources and their increasing concentration is largely related to the compound effects of increased population, improved living standards, and changes in
lifestyle. From a current base of 5 billion, the United Nations predicts that the global population may stabilize in the twenty-first century between 8 and 14 billion, with more than 90 percent of the
projected increase taking place in the world’s developing nations. The associated activities to support that growth, particularly to produce the required energy and food, will cause further increases in
greenhouse gas emissions. The challenge, therefore, is to attain a sustainable balance between population, economic growth, and the environment. The major greenhouse gas emissions from human activities are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and nitrous oxide. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the only major contributor to the greenhouse effect that does not occur naturally, coming from such sources as refrigeration, plastics, and manufacture. Coal’s
total contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is thought to be about 18 percent, with about half of this coming from electricity generation.

C. The worldwide coal industry allocates extensive resources to researching and developing new technologies and ways of capturing greenhouse gases. Efficiencies are likely to be improved dramatically, and hence CO2 emissions reduced, through combustion and gasification techniques which are now at pilot and demonstration stages. Clean coal is another avenue for improving fuel conversion efficiency. Investigations are underway
into superclean coal (3-5 percent ash) and ultraclean coal (less than 1 percent ash). Superclean coal has the potential to enhance the combustion efficiency of conventional pulverized fuel power plants.
Ultraclean coal will enable coal to be used in advanced power systems such as coal-fired gas turbines which, when operated in the combined cycle, have the potential to achieve much greater efficiencies.

D. Defendants of mining point out that, environmentally, coal mining has two important factors in its favor. It makes only temporary use of the land and produces no toxic chemical wastes. By carefully
pre-planning projects, implementing pollution control measures, monitoring the effects of mining, and rehabilitating mined areas, the coal industry minimizes the impact on the neighboring community, the immediate environment, and long-term land capability.

Dust levels are controlled by spraying roads and stockpiles, and water pollution is controlled by carefully separating clean water runoff from runoff which contains sediments or salt from mine
workings. The latter is treated and reused for dust suppression. Noise is controlled by modifying equipment and by using insulation and sound enclosures around machinery. Since mining activities represent only a temporary use of the land, extensive rehabilitation measures are adopted to ensure that land capability after mining meets agreed and appropriate standards which, in some cases, are superior to the land’s pre-mining condition. Where the mining is
underground, the surface area can be simultaneously used for forests, cattle grazing, and crop raising, or even reservoirs and urban development, with little or no disruption to the existing land use. In all cases, mining is subject to stringent controls and approval processes.

In open-cut operations, however, the land is used exclusively for mining but land rehabilitation measures generally progress with the mine’s development. As core samples are extracted to assess
the quality and quantity of coal at a site, they are also analyzed to assess the ability of the soil or subsoil material to support vegetation. Topsoils are stripped and stockpiled prior to mining for
subsequent dispersal over rehabilitated areas. As mining ceases in one section of the open-cut, the disturbed area is reshaped. Drainage within and off the site is carefully designed to make the new land surface as stable as the local environment allows: often dams are built to protect the area from soil erosion and to serve as permanent sources of water. Based on the soil requirements, the land issuitably fertilized and revegetated.

Questions 32-36.

Choose the appropriate letters A-D and write them in boxes 32-36 on your answer sheet.

32. The global increase in greenhouse gases has been attributed to
A. industrial pollution in developing countries.
B. coal mining and electricity generation.
C. reduced rainfall in many parts of the world.
D. trends in population and lifestyle.

33. The proportion of all greenhouse gases created by coal is approximately
A.14 percent.
B. 18 percent.
C. 27 percent.
D. 90 percent.

34. Current research aims to increase the energy-producing efficiency of coal by
A. burning it at a lower temperature.
B. developing new gasification techniques.
C. extracting CO2 from it.
D. recycling greenhouse gases

35. Compared with ordinary coal, new, ‘clean’ coals may generate power
A. more cleanly and more efficiently.
B. more cleanly but less efficiently.
C. more cleanly but at higher cost.
D. more cleanly but much more slowly.

36. To control dust at mine sites, mining companies often use
A. chemicals which may be toxic.
B. topsoil taken from the site before mining.
C. fresh water from nearby dams.
D. runoff water containing sediments.

Questions 37-40

Do the following statements reflect the opinions of the writer in the Reading Passage?
In boxes 37—40 on your answer sheet write

YES if the statement reflects the opinion of the writer
NO, if the statement contradicts the writer
NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

37. The coal industry should be abandoned in favor of alternative energy sources because of the
environmental damage it causes.
38. The greatest threats to the environment are the gases produced by industries which support the
high standard of living of a growing world population.
39. World population in the twenty-first century will probably exceed 8 billion.
40. CFC emissions have been substantially reduced in recent years.

Answers for THE TOTARA LANGUAGE INSTITUTE NEW ZEALAND Section 3, Questions 27-40

Click to view Answers of THE TOTARA LANGUAGE INSTITUTE NEW ZEALAND Section 3, Questions 27-40

Section 3, Questions 27-40
27. C // The coal industry and the environment
28. v // Coal as an energy source
29. vi // Coal and the enhanced greenhouse effect
30. vii // Research and development
31. iv // Environment protection measures
32. D // trends in population and lifestyle
33. B//18 per cent/18%
34. B // developing new gasification techniques
35. A // more cleanly and more efficiently
36. D // runoff water containing sediments
37. NO // N
38. YES // Y
39. YES // Y


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