Lost for Words IELTS READING With Answers.

Lost for Words IELTS READING Answers

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1. isolation8. C
2. economic globalisation// globalization// socio-economic pressures9. B
3. cultural identity10. NO
4. traditional skill11. YES
6. B13. YES
7. D
Lost for Words IELTS READING
Lost for Words IELTS READING

Many minority languages are on the danger list

In the Native American Navajo nation, which sprawls across four states in the American southwest, the native language is dying. Most of its speakers are middle-aged or elderly. Although many students take classes in Navajo, the schools are run in English. Street
signs, supermarket goods, and even their own newspaper are all in English. Not surprisingly, linguists doubt that any native speakers of
Navajo will remain in a hundred years’ time.

Navajo is far from alone. Half the world’s 6,800 languages arc likely to vanish within two generations – that’s one language lost every ten days. Never before has the planet’s linguistic diversity shrunk at such a pace. At the moment, we are heading for about three or four languages dominating the world,’ says Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Reading. ‘It’s a mass extinction, and
whether we will ever rebound from the loss is difficult to know.’

Isolation breeds linguistic diversity: as a result, the world is peppered with languages spoken by only a few people. Only 250 languages have more than a million speakers, and at least 3,000 have fewer than 2,500. It is not necessarily these small languages that are about to disappear. Navajo is considered endangered despite having 150,000 speakers. What makes a language
endangered is not just the number of speakers, but how old they are. If it is The critically endangered languages are those that are only spoken by the spoken by children it is relatively safe. elderly, according to Michael Krauss, the director of Alassk Native
Language Center, in Fairbanks.

Their parents? It begins with a crisis of confidence, when a small community finds itself alongside a larger, wealthier society says Nicholas Ostler, of Britain’s Foundation for Endangered Languages, in Bath. ‘People lose faith in their culture,’ he says. ‘When the next generation reaches their teens, they might not want to be induced into the old traditions.’

Quite often, governments try to kill off in public or discouraging its use in schools, all to promote national unity. Why do people reject the language of The change is not always voluntary. a minority language by banning its use.

The former US policy of running Indian reservation schools in English, for example, effectively put languages such as Navajo on the danger list. But Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics University of Chicago, argues that the deadliest weapon is not government policy but economic globalization. Native Americans have not lost pride in their language, but they have had to adapt to socio-economic pressures,’ he says. “They cannot refuse to speak English if most commercial activity is in English.’ But are languages worth saving? At the very least, there is a loss of data for the study of languages and their evolution, which relies on comparisons. between languages, both living and dead. When an unwritten and unrecorded language disappears, it is lost to science.

Language is also intimately bound up with culture, so it may be difficult to preserve one without the other. ‘If a person shifts from Navajo to English, they lose something,’ Mufwene says. Moreover, the loss of diversity may also deprive us of different ways of looking at the world,’ says Pagel. There is mounting evidence that learning a language changes in the brain. “Your brain and mine are different from the brain of someone who speaks French, for instance,’ Pagel says, and this could affect our thoughts and perceptions.
“The patterns and connections we make among various concepts may be structured by the linguistic habits of our community.’

So despite linguists’ best efforts, many languages will disappear over the next century But a growing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direst predictions from coming true. “The key to fostering diversity is for people to learn their ancestral tongue,
as well as the dominant language,’ says the Endangered Language Fund in New Haven, Connecticut. ‘Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism,’ he says. In New Zealand, classes for children have slowed the erosion of Maori and rekindled interest in the language. A similar approach in Hawaii has produced about 8,000 new speakers of Polynesian languages in the past few years. In California, ‘apprentice’ programs have provided life. support to several indigenous ‘apprentices’ pair up with one of the American tongues to learn a traditional skill such as basket weaving, with instruction exclusively in the endangered language. After about 300 hours
of training, they are generally sufficiently fluent to transmit the language to the next generation. But Mufwene says that preventing a language dying is more like preserving fruits in a jar,’ he says.

However, preservation can bring language back from the dead. There are examples of languages that have been revived by later generations. But a written form is essential for this, so the many speakers of the endangered language- where none existed before.
survived in written form, and then been the mere possibility of revival has led languages to develop systems of writing. where none existed before.

Questions 1-4Lost for Words IELTS READING

Complete the summary below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 1-4 on your answer she

There are currently approximately 6,800 languages in the world. This great variety of languages came about largely as a result of geographical 1……………………………………………. But in today’s world,
factors such as government initiatives and 2…………………………….. are contributing to a huge decrease in the number of languages. One factor which may help to ensure that some endangered languages
do not die out completely is people’s increasing appreciation of their 3… ……………………………………….This has been encouraged through programs of language classes for children and through ‘apprentice’
schemes, in which the endangered language is used as the medium of instruction to teach people a 4……………………………… Some speakers of endangered languages have even produced writing systems in order to help secure the survival of their mother tongue.

Questions 5-9– Lost for Words IELTS READING

Look at the following statements (Questions 5-9) and the list of people in the box below.
Match each statement with the correct person A-E.
Write the appropriate letter A-E in boxes 5-9 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any. letter more than once.

  1. Endangered languages cannot be saved unless people learn to speak more than one language.
  2. Saving languages from extinction is not in itself a satisfactory goal.
  3. The way we think may be determined by our language.
  4. Young people often reject the established way of life in their community.
  5. A change of language may mean a loss of traditional culture.
A Michael Krauss
B Salikoko Mufwene
C Nicholas Ostler
D Mark Pagel

Questions 10-13– Lost for Words IELTS READING

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 1?

  • YES I the statement agrees with the views of the writer
  • NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer
  • NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
  1. The Navajo language will die out because it currently has too few speakers.
  2. A large number of native speakers fails to guarantee the survival of a language.
  3. National governments could do more to protect endangered languages.
  4. The loss of linguistic diversity is inevitable.

Lost for Words IELTS READING Answers

Lost for Words IELTS READING Answers
1. isolation8. C
2. economic globalisation// globalization// socio-economic pressures9. B
3. cultural identity10. NO
4. traditional skill11. YES
6. B13. YES
7. D



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